Course: Gas Chromatography and Troubleshooting for the Oil & Gas Industry

Why Choose this Training Course?

In the past 50 years, Gas Chromatography has become an important analytical tool in virtually every phase of the petroleum industry, from exploration of crude oil and refining of finished products to research on new petrochemicals. Gas Chromatography (GC) is one of the most widely used techniques in modern analytical chemistry and in its basic form, is used to separate complex mixtures of different molecules based on their physical properties, such as polarity and boiling point. It is an ideal tool to analyze gas and liquid samples containing many hundreds or even thousands of different molecules, as in the case of crude oil or its products. The technique allows the analyst to identify both the types of molecular species present and their concentrations.

This comprehensive course introduces the fundamental theory of Gas Chromatography along with the operation, maintenance and troubleshooting, from sample introduction through to data analysis. Instrument components are described and presented, along with their underlying theories as they apply to guiding best practices and effective method optimization and troubleshooting.

Because of the variety and complexity of sample types, petroleum chemists use a broad spectrum of gas chromatographic methods. You will learn about current best practices in terms of system configuration choices and initial method conditions.

This Gas Chromatography and Troubleshooting for the Oil and Gas Industry training course commences with an introduction to gas chromatography and will cover the following areas:

  • Sample preparation
  • Sample introduction
  • Sample separation
  • Gas supply and handling
  • Split/split less and PTV inlets
  • Capillary columns
  • Detectors
  • The auto sampler
  • PC & data system
  • Creating methods
  • Integration and reporting
  • Quantitation and calibrations

In addition, this course also covers troubleshooting and maintenance of the following GC equipment:

  • Sample inlet & auto samplers
  • Columns
  • Detectors
  • Data analysis systems

What are the Goals?

This training course is designed to give the participants the competence to:

  • Understand the basic theoretical aspects of Gas Chromatography
  • Communicate practical information, capabilities and limitations of Gas Chromatography
  • Gain confidence on the:
    • GC analysis technique
    • GC troubleshooting
    • and analytical results evaluation

Who is this Training Course for?

This training course is ideal for lab and quality professionals that do not have formal training or experience in gas chromatography or those that want to refresh their current knowledge of gas chromatography. It is also suitable for Environmental Quality Personnel, and fiscal quality inspectors.

How will this Training Course be presented?

The training course explains the techniques in a clear fashion and combines a mixture of classroom based presentations with many videos on GC hardware and software. Delegates will be encouraged to participate in this seminar through the use of workshops and group discussions, PowerPoint presentations as well as many short troubleshooting videos on the daily topics.


Daily Agenda

Day One: Introduction to Chromatography

  • Appreciate the growing importance of Gas Chromatography to the oil and gas industry
  • Understand the scope and structure of a gas chromatographic analysis
  • Be fully aware of chromatography nomenclature and its impact on separation
  • Overview of Gas Chromatography
  • Gas Chromatography Theory
    • The Development Process
    • Factors Controlling Retention
    • Molecular Forces and Chromatographic Selectivity
    • Stationary Phase Loading and GC Performance
  • Chromatography Nomenclature

Day Two: Injection Ports

  • Understand the various types of injection ports and how to select and maintain them
  • Appreciate the different types of gas supply handling systems
  • Discover the role of sample introduction via auto samplers and the role of injection ports in GC operations
  • Gas supply and handling
  • GC Inlets Selection variation
    • Capillary v’s packed column
    • Direct capillary
    • Split/ split less
    • Programmed Temperature Vaporizer (PTV) Inlets
    • Cool on column
  • The role of sample introduction and injection ports in GC operations
  • Sample Introduction – Auto-samplers

Day Three: Gas Chromatography (GC) Columns

  • Learn the construction and use of various Gas chromatography columns and their impact on Chromatographic separations
  • Appreciate the different types of columns used in GC systems
  • Learn how to select maintain and troubleshoot the various types of GC columns
  • Column selection
    • Packed
    • Capillary
  • GC column impact on performance
  • Peak Dispersion in a Chromatographic Column
  • Column maintenance and troubleshooting
  • GC Oven
    • Isothermal v’s Temperature programming

Day Four: Gas Chromatography (GC) Detectors

  • Learn the construction and use of various Gas chromatography detectors and their impact on Chromatographic detection
  • Appreciate the different types of detectors used in GC systems
  • Learn how to select maintain and troubleshoot the various types of GC detectors
  • GC Detector Selection
  • Detector role in GC operations
  • How detectors can impact GC performance
  • Detector maintenance and troubleshooting
  • Chromatography Applications
  • Method Development
  • Setup and GC operation
  • Preparation for operation

Day Five: Gas Chromatography (GC) Data Acquisition and Processing

  • Learn the importance of correct sampling and its impact on Chromatographic separations and accuracy
  • Appreciate the different types of GC calibration methods used in GC analysis
  • Learn how the ISO17025 accreditation system ensures accurate laboratory practices and hence analysis
  • Understand the correct sequence GC troubleshooting
  • Sampling Techniques
  • Data Acquisition and Processing Systems
  • Calibration and GC performance
  • Gas Chromatography Troubleshooting

Course: Gas Conditioning & Processing:

Why Choose this Training Course?

This Gas Conditioning & Processing training course covers the basic concepts and techniques necessary to design, specify and manage gas field production facilities.  It includes complete and up-to-date overview of gas conditioning and processing technology and provides a clear understanding of the equipment and processes used in common separation and gas treating systems.

The training course will also cover gas dehydration, sweetening and gas processing operations and the integration between the individual processing operations will be clarified. The gathering, separation and final treatment systems for natural gas will be discussed, as well as the concepts of export quality natural gas, field and fiscal measurements error. The products (Natural Gas, Condensate, Commercial Propane and Commercial Butane, etc.) specifications and the processes available to condition the gas in order to meet these requirements will also be covered.

Hydrocarbon reconciliation and allocation of produced fluids to the contributing reservoirs are explained and supported by exercises to cement the learning of the various topics treated.  This course will enable the participants to develop a “feel” for the important parameters of designing and operating a production facility.  The participants will understand the uncertainties and assumptions inherent in designing and using the equipment in these systems and the limitations, advantages and disadvantages associated with their use.

This training course will feature:

  • Gas conditioning and processing principles and systems
  • Gas liquid separation systems
  • Mercury removal units
  • Type of dehydration processes: absorption and alternative operating conditions
  • TEG equipment: gas scrubbers, glycol contactors, flash tank, filters, glycol cooler, regenerator and stripping gas
  • Gas sweetening technologies
  • Operation of conditioning systems
  • Troubleshooting of equipment used in gas conditioning
  • Basics on dew point depression units

What are the Goals?

By the end of this training course, participants will learn to:

  • Understand the inflow and outflow performance as well as the system analysis in subsurface production operations
  • Understand gas treatment process.
  • Understand gas dehydration and processing, absorption, refrigeration and fractionation, cryogenics and LNG production.
  • Understanding the normal operating conditions of the plant
  • Have a good background of oil and gas processing and be able to understand the scope of LNG (NGL) gas processing
  • Become familiar with the transfer operations in the gas field and be able to carry-out the measurement techniques
  • Understand the conversion factors and be able to learn data analysis
  • Acquire in-depth understanding of gas compression, natural gas, slug catcher and NGL recovery
  • Define abnormal conditions such as high liquid level, heat loss, tanks getting dry, foams, plugged outlets
  • Learn about instrumentation, measurement and control of natural gas and gas liquids in addition to gas facility maintenance
  • Handle abnormal conditions such as loss of power, loss of control, loss of air, shortage of man power, foam and hydrate formation, Troubleshoot the problems
  • Emphasize the importance of water content in the gas field operations and be able to review & improve gas treatment
  • Know the procedure of condensate stabilization
  • Apply troubleshooting and safety considerations

Who is this Training Course for?

  • Process engineers along with the petroleum and production engineers
  • Field operators and technicians
  • Other company staff involved in gas treatment and processing
  • Process engineers who are new to the profession
  • Managers and government officials and others involved with supervising gas processing operations
  • Managers involved in the planning and development of new gas processing facilities or modifying existing facilities.

How will this Training Course be presented?

This training course will utilize a variety of proven adult learning techniques to ensure maximum understanding, comprehension and retention of the information presented. The course is designed as a blended environment of presentation; workshops; group work; practical exercises; field application/ analysis and several industry videos showing all processes; and general discussions

Daily Agenda

Day One: Introduction to Natural Gas Processing

  • Introduction to natural gas processing
  • Fundamentals and of natural gas engineering
  • Physical properties of natural gas
  • Natural gas production
  • Impurities in the gas
  • Contract terms
  • Heating value/ BTU (British Thermal Unit) importance
  • Plant normal and abnormal conditions
  • Startup and initial operation
  • Natural Gas Liquid (NGL), Gas-to-Liquid (GTL), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Day Two: Gas-Liquid Separation Systems

  • Gas-liquid separation system
  • Separators (types of separators – separator sizing)
  • Common variables such as pressure, temp., flow and level
  • Instrumentation, control, and measurement of natural gas and gas liquids
  • Control valves & actuators
  • Pressure, temperature, and level controls
  • Field application of instruments
  • Structured approach to the process operation
  • Contaminants removal
  • Process plant machinery specific plant issues
  • Management, planning and control
  • Startup and shutdown planning & control

Day Three: Mercury Removal Systems / Hydrate Problems / Dehydration of Natural Gas

  • Mercury problem in natural gas
  • Process description of the mercury removal units
  • Hydrate formation conditions
  • Hydrate prevention and mitigation methods
  • Water content estimation
  • Water dew point control
  • Dehydration systems and methods

Day Four: Dehydration of Natural Gas / NGL Recovery and Removal of Heavy Hydrocarbon

  • Glycol dehydration unit
  • Process description of the TEG (Triethylene Glycol) dehydration unit
  • The factors affect the TEG dehydration unit performance
  • Trouble shooting of the TEG dehydration unit
  • The nature of process problems affecting performance
  • Removal of heavy hydrocarbons (LTS  & turbo expanders systems)
  • Condensate stabilization – refrigeration system – cryogenics applications – turbo-expanders

Day Five:  Sweetening Systems

  • Removal of acid gases (H2S, CO2)
  • Sweetening systems: membrane system
  • Troubleshooting & problem solving
  • Risk management
  • Introduction to the theory of inventive problem solving
  • Effect of maintenance on operation
  • Managing, environment, safety and quality concern
  • Case studies

ME915 – Design, Operation & Maintenance of Heat Exchanger

Course Description

Heat exchangers are vital in many engineering applications such as Process Engineering (Refineries, Petrochemical, Food, etc.), Pharmaceutical, Pulp, Metal Forming, Water Heating and Steam Generation, Power plants, Desalination Plants, Air Conditioning, and many other applications. Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers constitute the work horse of Process, Power Generation and Desalination Industries. They are compact (large heat transfer area-to-volume ratio) and versatile and suit high pressure and low pressure applications as well as harsh process environment and support operation with high pressure differential between process streams. This course is devoted to Shell & Tube heat exchangers and covers different aspects: Types, Construction Features, Selection, Operation, Vibration, Fouling and Corrosion, Troubleshooting, and Maintenance. These topics are covered in depth and supplemented by videos on practical considerations of shell and tube heat exchangers. Also, simple examples and exercises will also accompany the material presented. At the completion of this course, the student will be able to describe: the effects of fouling, corrosion, and erosion commonly found in heat exchangers; common techniques used to clean heat exchangers; basic steps used to inspect heat exchangers; steps used in performing common leak tests; and basic steps used to perform repairs.

Course Outline

Day 1:

  • Introduction
  • Heat Transfer Principles, Physical mechanisms
  • Thermal resistance, Overall heat transfer coefficient
  • Chemical, mechanical and biological fouling of heat exchangers, Types of heat exchangers
  • Double- pipe heat exchangers, Parallel- flow and counter-flow types, Compact heat exchangers, Use of fins, Crossflow heat exchangers, Shell- and- tube heat exchangers
  • One- shell pass and two- shell pass types
  • Plate Heat Exchangers


Day 2:

  • Shell and tube heat exchangers
  • Types of shell and tube heat exchangers
  • Mechanical Design, Tubes, Tube-sheets
  • Shell Assembly, Baffles, Tube Bundle, TEMA Code
  • Classification of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers according to TEMA Code


Day 3:

  • Operation of Shell and tube heat exchangers
  • Fluid Stream Allocations
  • Performance of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
  • How to improve the effectiveness of Heat Exchangers
  • How to reduce the pressure drop of Heat Exchangers
  • Controlling Shell and Tube Exchangers
  • Fouling Control, Flow-Induced Vibration of Shell and Tube
  • Heat Exchangers, Maintenance of Heat Exchangers
  • Fouling In Heat Exchangers
  • Types and mechanisms, economic impact on design and operation, Fouling mitigation by design
  • Fouling mitigation by operation and maintenance
  • Cleaning Techniques, Corrosion and erosion in heat exchangers,
  • Heat Exchanger Tube Side Maintenance– Repair vs. Replacement, Tube bundle removal
  • Bolting procedure, testing procedures

Day 4:

  • Heat Exchanger Inspection Methods
  • Non-destructive tests, Inspection of shell and tube heat exchangers. NDE technologies for the examination of heat exchangers. Eddy current examination method
  • Remote field eddy current examination Method
  • Partial saturation eddy current examination Method
  • Internal rotating ultrasonic inspection method
  • Ultrasonic Heat Exchanger Tube Weld Inspection
  • Corrosion & Principles of Corrosion Control
  • Tube inspection, plugging the holes

Day 5:

  • Heat exchangers troubleshooting
  • Flow-induced vibration, mechanisms, vibration prediction, damage numbers, design procedure to avoid vibration including baffle selection, rod baffle exchangers, and twisted tube exchangers. Cost-effective maintenance and repair of heat exchangers. Cleaning strategies and methods: S&THE,
  • PHE, ACHE. Heat Exchanger Repairs
  • Removal and Replacement of Heat Exchangers
  • Case Studies
  • Last Day Review, Discussions will be carried out.

Course: Oil Refinery & Petrochemical Industry Wastewater Treatment

Why Choose this Training Course?

Petroleum refining and petrochemical industries unavoidably generate large volumes of wastewater. As environmental regulations for wastewater disposal are getting stricter, and fresh water resources are becoming increasingly limited, the industry requires more efficient management and reuse of this wastewater. Therefore, wastewater treatment must be explored and resolved by every oil refinery and petrochemical company.

What are the Goals?

  • Learn the purpose, principles of operation and limitations of the different wastewater treatment technologies in oil refining and petrochemical industries
  • Understand how to establish high recovery of wastewater for reuse onsite, reducing fresh water intake and meeting strict regulatory requirements
  • Understand the advanced cost-effective technologies for reduction of waste volume and obtain Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD)
  • Learn how to reduce the energy consumption and operational costs of the wastewater treatment facilities and optimize treatment conditions
  • Learn industry standard targets for wastewater prior to discharge or reuse
  • Identify the impact of pollution on the environment
  • Modify treatment facilities operating conditions according to the properties of incoming polluted wastewater
  • Improve the operability and reliability of equipment

Who is this Training Course for?

This intensive training course is intended for anyone who takes part in the wastewater treatment facilities in oil refining and petrochemical industries or who helps decide wastewater treatment investments. No prior knowledge of wastewater treatment facilities is required.

This training course is suitable to a wide range of professionals but will greatly benefit to:

  • Refinery and Petrochemical Plant Managers
  • Process Engineers and technologists involved in wastewater treatment facilities
  • Maintenance Engineers
  • Plant Engineers
  • Operations personnel including shift supervisors
  • All professionals involved in wastewater treatment facilities.
  • Other engineers who would like to have a further understanding of the wastewater treatment technology
  • Anyone who wishes to update himself on the methods used in this important field

Training Methods

A highly interactive combination of lectures and discussion sessions as well as case studies will be managed to maximize the amount and quality of information, knowledge and experience transfer. The training course will be intensive but practical and highly interactive. The sessions will start by raising the most relevant questions, and motivate everybody finding the right answers. The attendants will also be encouraged to raise more of their own questions and to share developing the right answers using their own analysis and experience. There will also be some indoor experiential activities to enhance learning. Course material through power point equipped with necessary animation, learning videos and general discussions will be provided.

Day One: Refinery and Petrochemical Plant Overview

  • Raw materials
  • Products and processes
  • Refinery configurations
  • Water and Waste Water Management
    • Different uses of water in processing units
    • Effluent rejection points
    • Major contaminants and wastewater streams
    • Nature of water pollutants and sources
    • Analytical methods used in the laboratory and through on-line analyzers
    • Pollution mechanisms, impact on environment
    • Pollution measurement 
  • Best Practices for Managing Refinery and Petrochemical Plant WWTP
    • Wastewater recycle/reuse for oil refining and petrochemical industries (ZLD)

Day Two: Primary Oil/Water Separation 

  • Treatment objectives
  • API separator
  • CPI separator
  • VOC containment/treatment
  • Design parameters
  • Process water stripping: typical process scheme, optimum operating conditions
  • Settling of insoluble hydrocarbons and sludge
  • Settling velocity
  • Settler design types and improvements
  • Coagulation
  • Filtration: various equipment, sand, active carbon beds, other filtration media 

Day Three: Secondary Oil/Water Separation

  • Treatment objectives
  • Dissolved Air/Gas Flotation Separator (DAF or DGF separators)
  • Equipment, flocculation additives, additive mix and operating parameter optimization
  • Induced Air/Gas Flotation Separator (IAF or IGF Separators)
  • Walnut Shell filter
  • Principle of operation
  • Typical applications and operating conditions
  • Rectangular vs. Circular
  • Advantages & disadvantages
  • Folded flow DAF/DGF separator
  • Oil/Water separators Risk Assessment – Safety
  • Off-Gas/VOC control devices
  • Wastewater equalization 

Day Four: Biological Treatment

  • Treatment objectives
  • Typical applications and operating conditions
  • Aeration devices
  • Gravity clarifiers
  • Principals of operation
  • Biological treatment options
  • Advantages & disadvantages
  • General process description 
  • Biological Sludge Treatment
  • Thickening methods: settling, press filtration, flocculation-floatation, centrifugation.
  • Treatment processes: digester, wet oxidation, thermal hydrolysis, incineration, smell control.

Day Five: Tertiary Treatment

  • Treatment objectives
  • Typical applications
  • Typical treatment methods
  • Filtration: Membrane and Media
  • Activated carbon
  • Reverse Osmosis
  • Membrane operating system
  • Principle of operation
  • General process description
  • Typical applications and operating conditions
  • Advantages & disadvantages 
  • Advanced oxidation process
  • Electrochemical catalysis

PCE112 Practical Distillation Technology

Course Introduction:

This down-to-earth course gives comprehensive coverage of distillation technology with particular emphasis on the problems that occur and how to solve them. It provides an excellent opportunity to develop a working knowledge of key techniques that can promote trouble-free operation and reduce distillation cost.

Course Objectives:

  • Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:
  • How to troubleshoot a distillation column and determine what may cause poor performance
  • How to evaluate existing column performance and develop new designs
  • How to avoid common causes of capacity bottlenecks, tray damage, downcomer sealing problems, packed tower distributor malfunctions and many other operating difficulties
  • How to de-bottleneck a column to improve capacity and/or separation
  • How to control and operate a distillation column
  • How to validate your tower simulation

Who Should Attend?

This course is intended for all engineering and supervisory personnel who are involved in; operating, troubleshooting, de-bottlenecking, designing and starting up distillation processes

Course Outline:

Day 1:

Avoiding Fractionation Pitfalls

  • Vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE): key concepts and simulation traps. Should we believe the simulation? Issues with close-boilers and non-idealities: why some heavy components go up while the simulation thinks they go down. VLE data: to trust or not to trust? Are distillation trays ideal stages? Reflux-stages relationship. Multi-component distillation: composition profiles, side-draws, accumulation, and cycling problems. What you need to watch out for.

Troubleshooting Distillation Simulations

  • Does your simulation reflect the real world? How poor simulation leads to incorrect problem diagnosis. What validation checks are needed? How far should we go? Sensitivity analysis and graphics for simulation troubleshooting: useful hints.

Day 2:

Tray Hydraulics and Limits

Visualization of vapour-liquid dispersions on trays, flooding, entrainment, weeping, dumping. Flood mechanisms: jet (entrainment), system limit, downcomer backup, downcomer choke. Which one limits your tower capacity? Common tray types: sieve, moving valve, fixed valve, sheds: pros and cons. Which works well in fouling applications?

Small holes, valves: benefits and traps. Flood: what causes it, what affects it, and how to predict it. Are the predictions reliable? Tray efficiency: are simulation predictions reliable?

Can it be enhanced by tray modification?

Troubleshooting Tray Towers

Gamma scans: application for diagnosing flood, missing and damaged trays, foaming, and downcomer flooding. How to combine gamma scans with process checks to get the most out of the scans: the four keys to success. Do gamma scans ever lie? Flooding and foaming symptoms: high dPs, reduced bottoms, others. Which can be trusted? Liquid and vapour sensitivity field tests: identifying the correct flood mechanism.

Day 2:

Troubleshooting Packed Towers

Rules of thumb for flood pressure drop and packing efficiency. Simulation hydraulic calculations: to trust or not to trust? Grid gamma scanning for detecting misdistribution, damage, distributor malfunction, distributor and collector overflow. Distributor overflow: death for packed beds. Some do’s and don’ts for distributors. Can poor distributor feeding bottleneck towers? Circumferential surface temperature surveys: how to conduct, what to avoid, and the hidden secrets they reveal.


State-of-the-art trays and packings: strengths and weaknesses. Factors that favour trays and factors that favour packings. The pressure drop bonanza: why packings win in non-fouling vacuum services and in compressor suction. Pitfalls unique to structured packings: high pressure application, oxidation, shutdown fires. High-capacity trays (eg Superfrac, VG Plus, MD): principles, tricks, and traps. Do they really give 30% more capacity than conventional?

Day 4:

Distillation Control

Assembling control loops into an overall scheme: what works, which is better, what causes instability, and what impairs efficiency. The three most common causes of control assembly Failure: no material balance control, fighting between temperature controllers, and level control on a small stream. Tips for avoiding problems. Can controls affect revamp success?

Best temperature control location: is there a reliable method for finding it? How can a temperature controller be fooled? Reboiler, condenser, and pressure controls: which loops work and which misbehave. How dead pockets in vapour overhead lines interfere with controls. Understanding hot vapour bypasses: why some work while others don’t. Control systems that did not work.

Day 5:

Avoiding Tower Malfunctions

The most common causes of distillation malfunctions: what trouble should we look for and prevent? Points of transition (feeds, draws, tower base): why these are some of the worst tower bottlenecks: how diagnosed and remedied. High tower base levels: how they induce premature flood, even tray/packing damage, and how you can prevent. Instrument issues at the tower base: what to watch out for. Tray/packing damage: pressure surges due to water entering a tower full of hot oil or insoluble organics, other sources of tray damage and ways to avoid. Some commissioning and startup watchouts: pre-startup inspection, blinding and unblinding, reverse flow, steam-water operation, washing, rapid pressuring/depressuring, drawing vacuum, introducing liquid. Chimney trays: do’s, don’ts, and how they bottleneck towers. Liquid outlets: choking in side draw rundown lines and how it restricts tower capacity. Why self-venting flow must be assured in the presence of entrained vapour? Siphon formation. Kettle and once-through thermosiphon reboilers: how they bottleneck towers.

Course Instructor

Jamal Khaled Amer 

Professional Petroleum Engineer with over 21 years of experience in oil and gas operation and training across onshore upstream facilities. Authorized assessor and competency verifier, on job training experience as operation in addition conduction safety courses about H2S and confined spaced entry….etc. Provide effective training as per gap analyses, extensive experience in gas compressors (reciprocating and centrifugal) with high operating discharge pressure (5000 psig). Terminal operation, wells operations, wells and assets integrity management, Artificial lift production (ESP), Water treatment plant, Glycol Dehydration, refinery operation and experience including fractionation, blending, Fired heater, Heat exchanger, Sour gas treatment, and Writing of Operating procedures and standing instructions as per requirements, Mechanically Pre-Commissioning & Commissioning of new Projects and plant modification punch list. Experience in operating facilities with high H2S concentration, prepare Operating expenditure budgeting & evaluations, Conducting Risk assessment and HAZOP study as per requirements. Updating operating operation manuals as per requirement .extensive experience in mechanical and instruments in oil and gas industry


Course Methodology:

A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:

(30%) Based on Case Studies

(30%) Techniques

(30%) Role Play

(10%) Concepts

Pre-test and Post-test

Variety of Learning Methods


Case Studies and Self Questionaires

Group Work, Discussion, Presentation


Operation of Process Equipment:

Fired Heaters, Heat Exchangers, Air Coolers, Piping, Pumps, Compressors and Process Control & Troubleshooting

Course Introduction:

This course is designed to provide an understanding and skills in operation of process equipment and troubleshooting. The program is a good opportunity for participants to familiarize with practical techniques, useful criteria (including short cuts) for designing and troubleshooting process equipment commonly used in gas processing and petrochemical plants.

Course Objectives:

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

 Calculate, evaluate and compile process data for the specification, design, selection and operation of process equipment

 Possess enhanced skills and knowledge in process engineering, including design methods, criteria, calculation procedures and short-cut techniques

 Perform the evaluation, diagnostic monitoring and troubleshooting of existing process equipment, including de-bottlenecking and revamping methods

 Evaluate technical proposals and prepare scoping cost estimates

 Prepare comprehensive process specification documents for bid packages

Who Should Attend?

This course is intended for those who are involved with process engineering, instrumentation & control including process engineers, mechanical & equipment engineers, project engineers and maintenance engineers, operators and technicians.


Course Instructor

Jamal Khaled Amer 

Professional Petroleum Engineer with over 21 years of experience in oil and gas operation and training across onshore upstream facilities. Authorized assessor and competency verifier, on job training experience as operation in addition conduction safety courses about H2S and confined spaced entry….etc. Provide effective training as per gap analyses, extensive experience in gas compressors (reciprocating and centrifugal) with high operating discharge pressure (5000 psig). Terminal operation, wells operations, wells and assets integrity management, Artificial lift production (ESP), Water treatment plant, Glycol Dehydration, refinery operation and experience including fractionation, blending, Fired heater, Heat exchanger, Sour gas treatment, and Writing of Operating procedures and standing instructions as per requirements, Mechanically Pre-Commissioning & Commissioning of new Projects and plant modification punch list. Experience in operating facilities with high H2S concentration, prepare Operating expenditure budgeting & evaluations, Conducting Risk assessment and HAZOP study as per requirements. Updating operating operation manuals as per requirement .extensive experience in mechanical and instruments in oil and gas industry


Course Outline:

Day 1:


Course overview

Gas processing overview

Process equipment categories

Mechanical and safety aspects

Process Control and Instrumentation

Instrumentation types and selection

Control valves sizing and selection

Pressure relief devices and systems

Day 2:


Fluid flow principles

Pressure loss categories

Pipe properties

Sizing methods and criteria

Two-phase flow

Conventional Separators

Types and functions

Sizing criteria and method

Design considerations and internals

Process operating problems

Day 3:


Categories and types

Performance characteristics

Control systems

Design criteria and parameters

Pump selection guidelines

Process operation troubleshooting


Categories and types

Compression process

Characteristics and terminologies

Design Criteria and parameters

Compressor control methods

Selection guidelines


Process operation problems/troubleshooting

Day 4:

Fired Heaters

Heater types

Process applications

Selection guidelines

Process operating problems

Heat Exchangers

Heat exchanger types

Process applications

Heat transfer terms and equations

Design criteria and parameters

Fouling considerations


Calculation methods

Selection guidelines

Process operation problems/troubleshooting

Day 5:

Air Coolers

Air cooler types

Design and operating considerations

Process operating problems/troubleshooting

Fractionation Columns

Fractionator types

Process design methods

Trays vs packing

Operating parameters

Process operating problems/troubleshooting

Course Methodology:

A variety of methodologies will be used during the course that includes:

(30%) Based on Case Studies

(30%) Techniques

(30%) Role Play

(10%) Concepts

Pre-test and Post-test

Variety of Learning Methods


Case Studies and Self Questionaires

Group Work, Discussion, Presentation

Course Timings:

Daily Course Timings:

08:00 – 08:20 Morning Coffee / Tea

08:20 – 10:00 First Session

10:00 – 10:20 Coffee / Tea / Snacks

10:20 – 12:20 Second Session

12:20 – 13:30 Lunch Break & Prayer Break

13:30 – 15:00 Last Session

Process Engineering Flare and Over-Pressure System

Course Description

The flare, blowdown and pressure relief systems are the most important elements for emergency and operational discharge of flammable substances in the process facilities. Safety relief and flare systems control vapors and liquids that are released by pressure-relieving devices and blow-downs. Pressure relief is an automatic, planned release when operating pressure reaches a predetermined level. Blowdown normally refers to the intentional release of material, such as blowdowns from process unit startups, furnace blowdowns, shutdowns, and emergencies. Vapor depressuring is the rapid removal of vapors from pressure vessels in case of fire. This may be accomplished by the use of a rupture disc, usually set at a higher pressure than the relief valve.

The principal elements of the safety relief and flare systems are the individual pressure relief devices, the flare piping system, the flare separator drum, and the flare (including igniters, tips, sealing devices, purge and steam injection for smokeless burning). Application of relief devices must comply with API 520/521 standards. Design of relief devices must comply with applicable national codes and laws as well as the requirements of the insurance covering the plant or installation. National regulations not only cover safety but also environmental considerations such as air and water pollution and noise abatement.

This course presents a convenient overview of relief system details based on the full scope of API specification requirements. It covers all aspects of relief flare systems from the emergency relief sources through system relief valves and flare network right to the stack and flare tip. Descriptions and design criteria will be outlined for flare tips, seals, stacks, knockout drums, header systems, relief valves, depressurization systems and basic hazard analysis. Alternative design methods will be also described with reference to the specific nature of relief and flare systems worldwide


Course Objectives

Upon the successful completion of this course, each participant will be able to:-

  • Apply an in-depth knowledge and skills in the design, operation and maintenance of flare, blowdown and pressure relief systems
  • Discuss product specification and identify the different types of flow measurement
  • Review the various instrumentation and sensing devices used in flare, blowdown and pressure relief systems
  • Carryout installation, troubleshooting and calibration of the control systems used in plant
  • Determine the components and function of the relief systems and practice the sizing and installation of the relieving devices
  • Identify the types, features and application of flare systems
  • Determine the applicable codes, standards and recommended practices for flare, blowdown and pressure relief systems
  • Acquire knowledge on product storage and tanks and recognize the importance of product recovery
  • Evaluate the scope of waste heat recovery and explain its role in flare and pressure relief systems

Who Should Attend

This course provides systematic techniques on the design, operation and maintenance of flare, blowdown and pressure relief systems. Operations personnel, supervisors, engineers, maintenance personnel, senior plant supervisors, operations process support engineers, design engineers and process engineers will gain an outstanding knowledge from the practical and operational aspects of the course.


Course Duration

Five days


Training Methodology

This interactive training course includes the following training methodologies as a percentage of the total tuition hours:-

60% Lectures & Work Presentations

20% Case Studies & Practical Exercises

20% Videos & General Discussions

Course Outline

Day 1

Product Specification

  • LP-Gas Specification Parameters.
  • Vapor Pressure.
  • Moisture Content.
  • Sulfur Content.
  • Volatile Residue.
  • Non-Volatile Residue.
  • Non-Specification Contaminants.

Flow Measurement

  • Flow Calculation Guide.
  • Gas Measurement & Pipe Rupture.
  • Liquid Measurement.
  • Mass Measurement.
  • Steam Measurement.
  • Auxiliary Equipment and Instrumentation & Sensing Devices

General Instrumentation Considerations

  • Pneumatic Power Supplies.
  • Electronic Power Supplies.
  • Pressure Sensors.
  • Level Sensors.
  • Temperature Sensors.
  • Flow Sensors.
  • Signal Transmitters.
  • Pneumatic Transmitters
  • Electronic Transmitters.
  • Signal Converters.
  • Recorders and Indicators common Terms

Day 2:

  • Process Safety Management
  • Basic Process Protection concept
  • Primary Defense
  • Elements of Process Safety Management
  • Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA)
  • Relief Systems
  • Relief Device Design
  • Blocked Discharge
  • Relief Systems (cont’d)
  • Fire Exposure
  • Tube Rupture
  • Relief Systems (cont’d)
  • Control Valve Failure
  • Thermal Expansion

Day 3

  • Definitions: pressure relieving and depressuring systems
  • Causes of overpressure
  • Overpressure criteria
  • Potentials of overpressure
  • Determination of individual relieving rates
  • Sources of overpressure
  • Effects of pressure, temperature and composition
  • Effect of operator response
  • Closed outlets
  • Cooling or reflux failure
  • Accumulation of non-condensable
  • Entrance of volatile material into the system
  • Failure of process stream automatic control
  • Abnormal process heat input
  • Internal explosion (excluding detonation)
  • Chemical reaction
  • Hydraulic expansion
  • External fire
  • Opening manual valves
  • Electrical power failure
  • Heat-transfer equipment failure
  • Vapor depressuring
  • Special considerations for individual valves
  • Selection of disposal systems
  • Atmospheric discharge
  • Formation of flammable mixtures
  • Exposure to toxic vapors or corrosive chemicals
  • Ignition of a relief stream at the point of emission
  • Excessive noise levels
  • Air pollution

Day 4

  • Disposal by flaring
  • Combustion properties
  • Flame properties
  • Smoke
  • Radiation
  • Atmospheric dispersion
  • Combustion methods
  • Flare systems designs
  • Enclosed ground flares
  • Elevated flares
  • Auxiliary flaring equipment
  • Flaring toxic gases
  • Burn pits
  • Disposal to a lower-pressure system
  • Disposal of liquids and condensable vapors

Day 5

  • Disposal systems
  • System load
  • System arrangement
  • Single-valve disposal systems
  • Multiple-valve disposal systems
  • Design of disposal system components
  • Piping
  • Design of relief device inlet piping
  • Design of relief device discharging piping
  • Drums and seals
  • Sizing a knockout drum
  • Sizing a seal drum
  • Sizing a quench drum
  • Flares and flare sizing
  • Vent stacks and their sizing
  • Flare gas recovery systems
  • Safety considerations
  • Path to flare
  • Back-flow
  • Flare gas characteristics
  • Smokeless operation
  • Design considerations
  • Summary, Conclusions and Questions
  • Course closure.

Course: Process Plant Start-up, Commissioning & Troubleshooting

Course Introduction

There is an alarming trend in industry to discount the potential contribution of the Technical/Operations function to productivity improvement, product quality and gains in market share. Principles taught in this training session will help you to understand the true nature and different techniques of problem solving and problem prevention in the operational/process environment. Excellent Troubleshooting skills are considered a core competency for ‘Best-in-Class’ industrial companies. If your company’s goals include minimizing downtime then this workshop is a must because it delivers rapid, safe Troubleshooting.

Course Objectives:

Upon successful completion of this course, the delegates will be able to:

  • How to become a ‘Top Gun’ Troubleshooter by acquiring new skills
  • To develop a structured approach to Troubleshooting and Problem Solving which uses a common terminology and shared understanding
  • To point the way to Continuous Improvement in the way you run your processes and make incremental efficiency gains
  • To understand the difference between having a techniques manual on the bookshelf – and actually making it work
  • To identify the “motivated” people who should be the champions of Troubleshooting and Problem Solving – and who should just follow
  • To understand work practices which “allow” success in Troubleshooting and Problem
  • Solving through reducing the variability of your process

Who Should Attend?

This course is intended for all those supervisors/section heads who are involved in the operations function and who are responsible for leading and directing people to achieve and improve productivity levels, those faced with the challenge of actually using the various techniques of Troubleshooting and Problem Solving to reduce downtime and waste and improve run efficiencies will benefit. The program elements are of equal importance to Production, Maintenance Engineering and Process Engineering personnel.

Course Outline

Day 1:

Introduction and preparation

  • Introduction to Process Plant Start Up and Commissioning
  • Organization, Roles and Leadership
  • Cost Estimation
  • Spare Parts Planning

Commissioning strategy

  • Commissioning Strategy
  • Mechanical Completion & Integrity Checking
  • Pre-commissioning and Operational Testing
  • Start-up/Initial Operation, Testing and Acceptance

Day 2:

Process plant and machinery specific issues

  • Process Plant and Machinery Commissioning
  • Instrumentation and Control Systems
  • Preparing and Isolating Process Plant

Project managing the start-up/commissioning

  • Work Breakdown Structures
  • The Critical Path Method of Planning and Control
  • Short-Cut Planning Methods
  • Budgeting, Progress and Cost Control
  • Earned Value Analysis

Day 3:

Troubleshooting, risk and HSEQ

  • Introduction to Problem Solving and Trouble Shooting
  • Problem Solving in Commissioning and Start Up Situations
  • Managing Risk
  • Managing Health, Safety, Quality and Environment


  • The nature of process problems affecting performance
  • Performance defined in terms of generic variables: Speed, Quality and Cost
  • Effort inputs in context – Asset based or Business Process based
  • Structured approach – The Operations Process redefined
  • Configuration; Operation; and Optimization
  • Maturity Indexing: Planning, Control, Congruence, Empowerment
  • 6 Big Losses, 7 Wastes


Day 4:

Tools and techniques – practical experience

  • Interactive and Dynamic variable relationships analysis
  • Techniques introduction
  • Tools introduction
  • Problem Analysis
  • Practical Use of Tools and Techniques
  • Case Studies
  • Tools & Techniques – selecting the right one

People issues

  • Working practices – empowerment or impairment?
  • Group dynamics
  • Individual motivators
  • Developing Troubleshooting and Problem Solving skills
  • Managing change


Day 5:

Operator, Maintainer, Designer Interface

  • Cross functional and Team working
  • Introduction to the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving
  • Auditing your process to a dynamic standard
  • Effect of Maintenance/Operations strategy
  • Development of Standards and Key Performance Indicators
  • Life Cycle Costing, Design for Operation, Design for Maintenance

Course: Refinery Process Yield Optimization

Why Choose this Training Course?

 This course will present a detailed overview of refining process yields, from the crude oil feed to the finished products. It is targeted at personnel directly involved in refining utilization and optimization, including but not limited to refining technologists and operations personnel as well as non-technical personnel interested in these processes or involved in refinery planning.

All the major refining processes are explored and examined with a view of understanding and appreciating how each unit relates to each other whilst at the same time, how these relationships can enhance refinery operations.

Major refining processes are presented and discussed, including feedstock, feedstock preparation, operating conditions, catalysts, product properties and refinery yields. Refining economics will be included as means to optimizing refining operations and profitability.

The Refining & Petrochemicals training course is oriented toward the practical aspects of refinery operations and yield optimization and includes the terminology used in the industry.

What are the Goals?

  • To familiarize and understand the various refinery types and appreciate how refining complexity impacts refining optimization and refining margins.
  • Comprehend the importance quality giveaways and learn how use blending calculations to reduce these.
  • Use hands on software that allow professionals in the industry to choose different types of crude diets and thus optimize refinery utilization and efficiency.
  • Act as a primer into the industry of Petroleum Refining to maximize process fluid yields
  • Familiarize industry professionals with all processes associated with the processing of petroleum into finished products
  • Equip new engineers into the industry, with the basic tools for understanding the complex nature of Refining and its operations

Who is this Training Course for?

This course is intended for refining professionals working in the industry either as refining technologists or in refining operations and engineers. It is designed to allow a further understanding of the various processes available and how these can be optimized to improve yields and refining margins.

  • Refining engineers
  • Operations personnel including shift supervisors
  • Marketers and refinery planners
  • Blending professionals
  • Other engineers who would like a further understanding of the complex refining processes
  • Accountants, marketers and other professions who would like to comprehend the advantages and limitations of the various refining processes at their site.

How will this Training Course be presented?

Process Yields is a hands on, stimulating learning experience with access to professional software used by refining technologists and experts for optimizing refining operations. The training course will be highly interactive, with opportunities to advance your opinions and ideas. Participation is encouraged in a supportive environment.

To ensure the concepts introduced during the course are understood, they will be reinforced through a mix of learning methods, including lecture style presentation, open discussion, case studies, software simulations and group work.

Attendees will have the opportunity to develop personal competencies and build up expert knowledge of crude oil yield processes in a range of equipment.

Daily Agenda

Day One: Crude Oil Yields Refinery Technology

  • Introduction to Crude Oil Origins & Characteristics
  • Crude oil Assay and properties
  • Crude oil products & Product specifications
    • LPG
    • Gasoline
    • Kerosene/ Jet Fuel
    • AGO / Diesel Fuel Oil
    • Petrochemical Feedstocks
  • Overall refinery flow: Interrelationship of processes

 Day Two: Petroleum Refinery Processes

  • Crude Processing
  • Desalting
  • Atmospheric distillation
  • Vacuum distillation
  • Heavy Oils Processing / Bottom of the barrel upgrading
    • Cocking and Thermal Processes
    • Delayed Coking
    • Fluid Coking
    • Flexicoking
    • Visbreaking
  • Case study – example

 Day Three: Process for Motor Fuel Production

  • Fluid catalytic cracking
  • Hydrocracking
  • Cat Cracking
  • Isomerization
  • Alkylation
  • Hydrotreating
  • Catalytic Reforming
  • Case study – example

Day Four: Supporting Operations

  • Blending for Product Specifications
  • Hydrogen production
  • Refinery Gas Plants
  • Acid Gas Treating
  • Sulfur Recovery Plants
  • Utilities
  • Case study – example

 Day Five: Refinery Economics

  • Residue Reduction
  • Asphalt and Residual Fuel
  • Refinery Complexity and Netback
  • Economic Evaluation
  • Cost Estimation
  • Case Studies
  • Group Discussions
  • Program Evaluation & Summary


  • Native speaking Arabic, English and Turkish instructors guarantee all candidates receive the full benefit of the courses they attend.
  • We have a group of well experienced and authorized Instructors to deliver the courses in three languages (Arabic, English and Turkish).
  • All classrooms are furnished and equipped with the latest technology in training and simulating equipment.
  • The center is recognized as a leader for safety and technical training in the Middle East.
  • Has only the best certified international trainers using the latest teaching methods in accordance with international education standards.
  • All training programs ensure candidates of the high performance. reliability and quality.

The Company ensures high performance, reliability and quality. It is precisely equipped with some of the latest Training technologies in the world.

  • The well-equipped classrooms
  • latest teaching aids
  • Manage your time so you’ll get more done in less time